John Renslow
Golf Columnist

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September 4, 2013
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Renslow: The air down there

Living things need oxygen to breath. Seems obvious enough, but…when the greens on our home course get a spring or fall treatment known as “aerification” many of us lose perspective. We watch TV and know what tour courses look like from the air, our course should look like that, too. (What goes unsaid, however, is that the tour course has been closed for weeks prior to the event in order to produce those pristine, yet often temporary conditions).

Let not your heart be troubled, your golf course, too, will return to its original state, if not better. Granted, it will take 2 – 3 weeks before everything is ‘normal’ again. But, as with most improvements; no pain, no gain. The layer of sand and those little holes may disturb your putting, however, this short term disruption is a long term gain for your golf course.

A quality green requires deep and healthy roots. From the surface, it may sound like an exaggeration, those blades of grass, just longer than a 1/8” (in California usually a type of Bent Grass), have roots that are several inches deep (and the deeper the better). In order to maintain a quality plant and healthy roots, the roots need oxygen.

Thousands of rounds a year and millions of foot steps (here’s the quick math; how many steps do you take on a green? 50? How many players in the group? Multiplied by 40,000 rounds a year?) will contribute to a compaction of the greens. When compacted, the small pockets of air in the soil are crushed. With a wee bit of drama, this will leave the roots suffocating and gasping for air.

Routine preparation of the golf course will contribute to an accumulation of ‘thatch.’ Thatch is a layer of grass stems, roots, clippings, and debris that settle on the ground and either slowly decompose and/or accumulate over time. An excessive thatch layer can restrict the movement of air, water, fertilizer and other materials to the roots. It can also harbor bad guys (fungi) which can cause turf diseases. Then, when temperature and moisture conditions are right, a disease infestation can kill the already weakened turf. This is not good.

Spring and fall, your often unheralded golf course maintenance crew will take a machine out to each green. The machine rapidly inserts a collection of tines (generally between 3/8” and 5/8” in diameter) into the turf that extract cores about 3-inches in length. After the cores have been removed, a measure of sand is distributed across the entire green. Finally, the sand is spread out to fill the holes and leave a fairly level playing surface.

The schedule is chosen for the seasonally mild temperatures. Grass doesn’t grow as well in cooler temperatures and extreme heat can stress to the turf. So, when it’s spring and everything is in full bloom, it’s the perfect time for them to recover more quickly.

Also, known as ‘plugging,’ this process will accomplish at least three things; relieve soil compaction, improve the soil mixture (by adding sand) to the highest part of the plant’s root, and reduce the accumulation of excess thatch. For a few weeks of less than perfect conditions, there is a huge long term benefit.

Now, one key question for we golf purists. Is there a provision in the Rules of Golf to help me during this temporary condition? I’m not running for political office, but I can say without a doubt, the answer is “no”…and “yes.” You see the Rules of Golf do not provide relief. However, your home-town course or committee could develop a Local Rule that would allow players to avoid the little holes on the greens, although you won’t see that very often.

It’s certainly worth it, but it seems that for a couple of weeks every spring and fall, we will play in some less than perfect conditions to give the greens a breather.

John Renslow is general manager and director of golf at Alta Sierra Country Club. Please contact John with your questions or comments at

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The Union Updated Sep 5, 2013 12:10AM Published Sep 7, 2013 01:18AM Copyright 2013 The Union. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.